Research Studies

Load Archetypes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of New York City’s Largest Users to Help Accelerate the Deployment of Battery Storage

This report was prepared by GridMarket LLC in the course of performing work contracted for and sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (hereafter “NYSERDA”). The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NYSERDA or the State of New York, and reference to any specific product, service, process, or method does not constitute an implied or expressed recommendation or endorsement of it. Further, NYSERDA, the State of New York, and the contractor make no warranties or representations, expressed or implied, is to the fitness for particular purpose or merchantability of any product, apparatus, or service, or the usefulness, completeness, or accuracy of any processes, methods, or other information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this report.

The energy-storage frontier: Lithium-ion batteries and beyond

Materials play a critical enabling role in many energy technologies, but their development and commercialization often follow an unpredictable and circuitous path. In this article, we illustrate this concept with the history of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, which have enabled unprecedented personalization of our lifestyles through portable information and communication technology.

Energy Storage: Funding and Knowledge Sharing Priorities

The role of enabling technologies such as energy storage is becoming more important as Australia moves towards higher penetrations of intermittent renewable generation such as solar and wind power. Some parts of Australia are already experiencing the technical limitations of intermittent renewables, leading to emerging power quality issues or curtailment of renewables. If ARENA is to continue supporting the growth of Australia’s renewables market efficiently and at lowest cost, it is important to support the development of new markets for enabling technologies. Energy storage is perhaps the most significant enabling technology, providing the ability to both smooth and shift renewable generation to match demand profiles. The Reprot will include the following key topics:

International developments

Domestic context

Technology status

Recommended investment priorities initiatives

Concluding Remarks

EPRI the integrated grid: Capacity and Energy in the Integrated Grid

This paper addresses the role of capacity and energy in the Integrated Grid by providing insights from EPRI’s research in the following areas:

  • How individual resources may contribute differently to the system’s capacity to deliver energy;
  • How changing supply and load characteristics make it necessary to distinctly address both energy and capacity on wholesale and retail levels;
  • The cost of capacity, based on an assessment of cost structures of several U.S. utilities;
  • Emerging trends in wholesale markets and retail rate structures to value capacity and energy as distinct elements of those markets/structures; and
  • Key research to enable DER to provide both capacity and energy.


ESMAP Technical Study

Report shows how energy storage can help scale up solar & wind power

Energy Storage Systems for the Electric Power Sector

It reviews the leading grid-scale energy storage systems, with a focus on technologies that are either deployed or in the demonstration phase. We touch only briefl y on vehicle-to-grid enabled storage, but provide references to relevant publications on this topic. It also show comparison between these storage systems.

Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity

Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. The presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale.

Technical and Economic Evaluation of Supercritical Oxy-combustion for Utility Scale Power Generation

Electrothermal Energy Storage with a Multiphase Transcritical CO2 Cycle

Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stack (10/1/2014)
Low temperature Li-ion battery ageing

Different kinds of batteries suit different applications, and consequently several different chemistries exist. In order to better understand the limitations of low temperature performance, a Li-ion battery chemistry normally intended for room temperature use, graphite-Lithium Iron Phosphate, with 1 M LiPF6 ethylene carbonate:diethylene carbonate electrolyte, is here put under testing at -10°C and compared with room temperature cycling performance. Understanding the temperature limitations of this battery chemistry will give better understanding of the desired properties of a substitute using alternative materials. The experimental studies have comprised a combination of battery cycle testing, and surface analysis of the electrodes by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Results showed that with low enough rate, temperature is less of a problem, but with increased charge rate, there are increasingly severe effects on performance at low temperatures. XPS measurements of low charge rate samples showed similar Solid Electrolyte Interface layers formed on the graphite anode for room- and low temperature batteries, but with indications of a thicker layer on the former. A section of the report handles specific low temperature battery chemistries. The conclusions- and outlook were made by comparing the results found in the study with earlier findings on low temperature Li-ion batteries and present possible approaches for modifying battery performance at lowered temperatures.