Research Studies

On August 28, 2017, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released a report of the potential for behind-the-meter storage in various areas around the country

High demand charges are the most commonly cited factor for battery energy storage project economics to make sense. In areas where demand charges are high, the systems become economically sensible in addition to the various resilience and environmental benefits the systems provide. This report identifies regions in the country where demand charges are in excess of $15/kW, which serves as a basis for identifying regions throughout the nation where energy storage is economically viable at the present time. 

State Policies to Fully Charge Advanced Energy Storage: The Menu of Options

This report, commissioned and performed by the Energy Storage Association, provides a brief summary of different types of state policy that can accelerate the growth of the energy storage industry. This report is meant to build on the IREC report, "Charging Ahead: An Energy Storage Guide for State Policymakers."

Growth and Legal Implications of Energy Storage Technologies

Energy storage technologies are becoming a vital part of the state's energy grid. These technologies are drastically different than conventional generating facilities, and resultantly require different regulatory policies. This paper explores various forms of regulation, incentives, and other factors that impact the energy storage industry. To conclude the paper makes policy recommendations that should aid the growth of the industry. 

New York City Resilient Solar Roadmap

In partnership with Meisters Consultants Group and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the City University of New York commissioned this report to facilitate the deployment of solar and storage in New York City. The report contains discussion of priorities and barriers facing the industry, as well as existing use cases. The report extensively discusses the benefits that arise from co-locating solar and storage in the city, as well as the regulatory challenges facing these types of systems. 


Distributed Energy Resources for New York's Wholesale Electricity Markets

This is not an energy storage specific roadmap, but focuses on how the NYISO can facilitate the integrations of DERs into the grid. The report discusses the challenges posed by different types of DERs, and how the resources can most effectively be integrated into the grid. 

Load Archetypes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of New York City’s Largest Users to Help Accelerate the Deployment of Battery Storage

This report was prepared by GridMarket LLC in the course of performing work contracted for and sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (hereafter “NYSERDA”). The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NYSERDA or the State of New York, and reference to any specific product, service, process, or method does not constitute an implied or expressed recommendation or endorsement of it. Further, NYSERDA, the State of New York, and the contractor make no warranties or representations, expressed or implied, is to the fitness for particular purpose or merchantability of any product, apparatus, or service, or the usefulness, completeness, or accuracy of any processes, methods, or other information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this report.

Imperial Irrigation District's El Centro Generating Station Fact Sheet

The El Centro Generating Station is the first facility of its kind in the United States. By combining the energy storage system with the existing generating facility the utility has been able to develop the first, and only, black start capable generating facility in the nation. Given that the REV initiative envisions a more resilient grid it is apparent that New York will need to begin developing Black Start capable facilities. 

The energy-storage frontier: Lithium-ion batteries and beyond

Materials play a critical enabling role in many energy technologies, but their development and commercialization often follow an unpredictable and circuitous path. In this article, we illustrate this concept with the history of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, which have enabled unprecedented personalization of our lifestyles through portable information and communication technology.

Energy Storage: Funding and Knowledge Sharing Priorities

The role of enabling technologies such as energy storage is becoming more important as Australia moves towards higher penetrations of intermittent renewable generation such as solar and wind power. Some parts of Australia are already experiencing the technical limitations of intermittent renewables, leading to emerging power quality issues or curtailment of renewables. If ARENA is to continue supporting the growth of Australia’s renewables market efficiently and at lowest cost, it is important to support the development of new markets for enabling technologies. Energy storage is perhaps the most significant enabling technology, providing the ability to both smooth and shift renewable generation to match demand profiles. The Reprot will include the following key topics:

International developments

Domestic context

Technology status

Recommended investment priorities initiatives

Concluding Remarks

EPRI the integrated grid: Capacity and Energy in the Integrated Grid

This paper addresses the role of capacity and energy in the Integrated Grid by providing insights from EPRI’s research in the following areas:

  • How individual resources may contribute differently to the system’s capacity to deliver energy;
  • How changing supply and load characteristics make it necessary to distinctly address both energy and capacity on wholesale and retail levels;
  • The cost of capacity, based on an assessment of cost structures of several U.S. utilities;
  • Emerging trends in wholesale markets and retail rate structures to value capacity and energy as distinct elements of those markets/structures; and
  • Key research to enable DER to provide both capacity and energy.