Research Studies

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16-21 Load Archetypes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of New York City's Largest Users to Help Accelerate the Deployment of Battery Storage

Created through a public-private partnership with Con Edison, NYSERDA, and NYCEDC, GridMarket links distributed energy projects and essential development information with a trusted supplier network.

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/ polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li2S8) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li2S2 and Li2S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li2S4. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li2S2/Li2S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg1 and 190 W h L1 for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li2S8 catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg1 and 108 W h L1 can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO3 additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g1 . This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

Advanced Battery Development

Energy Storage R&D FY 2013 annual report

An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery.

Applied Battery Research for Transportation

The critical technological component in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that enables comparable convenience, affordability, and safety to those found in today’s petroleum-powered vehicles continues to be energy storage. To promote the widespread adoption of electric vehicles and enable a strong U.S.-based battery manufacturing sector, the materials discovery and device innovation taking place in national laboratories and at universities must be translated into commercially viable products and processes. Such applied research activities are inherently high risk; coupling the frontier, cutting edge nature of materials discovery with the performance/cost needs of a market-changing new product. A significant portfolio of R&D projects funded through the VTO that meet these criteria are grouped together in the Applied Battery Research (ABR) for transportation program. The ABR program is and will continue to be comprised of high risk projects investigating issues and advances at the cell level. Success in ABR projects means electric drive vehicle energy storage products that can be realized (manufactured) and that lead to cost reduction; thus, fulfilling the energy storage component of EERE’s EV Everywhere Initiative. Such improvements will be accomplished through novel materials, particularly the active components of the cell, but also through innovative cell design and electrode composition. As well, materials production, electrode processing, and cell manufacture are also important thrusts within ABR.

Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity

Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. The presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale.

Battery Manufacturing for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Policy Issues

The United States is one of several countries encouraging production and sales of fully electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce oil consumption, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5) provided federal financial support to develop a domestic lithium-ion battery supply chain for electric vehicles. Some of these companies have brought on new production capacity, but others have gone bankrupt or idled their plants. While early in his Administration President Obama forecast that 1 million plug-in electric vehicles would be sold by 2015, motorists have been slow to embrace all-electric vehicles. At the beginning of 2013, about 80,000 plug-in electrics were on U.S. roads.


Distributed Energy Resources for New York's Wholesale Electricity Markets

This is not an energy storage specific roadmap, but focuses on how the NYISO can facilitate the integrations of DERs into the grid. The report discusses the challenges posed by different types of DERs, and how the resources can most effectively be integrated into the grid. 

DNV KEMA Residential Solar Energy Storage Analysis

In this study, the DNV KEMA team has examined the potential of storage applications to meet minimal electricity needs identified for residences, where grid failures prevented their distributed assets from operating during the outage

  • Specifically, research has focused on the potential of solar–storage applications with the goal of:
  • Identifying lowest incremental cost to allow solar PV systems to island from the electric grid and provide a modest level of electricity for critical loads through these types of configurations
  • Identify niche applications close to commercialization for stationary energy storage that could be further supported by NYSERDA’s research, demonstration and deployment programs
Economic Impact Study and New York Roadmap for Energy Storage

NY-BEST releases the Economic Impact Study and New York Roadmap for Energy Storage showing how New York can grow jobs and lead the way in energy storage technology.