Research Studies

Intermediate Temperature Hybrid Fuel Cell System for the Conversion of Natural Gas to Electricity and Liquid Fuels

 A hybrid fuel cell technology that will both generate electricity and produce liquid fuel. Resulting cell could use natural gas to produce ethylene for conversion into liquid fuel or high-value chemicals.


Novel Bromine Battery

Aurthors: William Braff,Martin Z. Bazant, Cullen Buie

A low-cost, high-capacity, rechargeable battery that could one day enable widespread adoption of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Membraneless Bromine battery.

Process for producing redox shuttles

The invention provides a method for preparing 1,4-di-tert-butyl-2,5-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene, the method comprising reacting 2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene-1,4-diol with cesium carbonate and halogenated ether in dimethyl formamide. The method yields 500 gram batches at a time, or multiples thereof. The method enables the industrial production of redox shuttles for use in lithium ion battery systems.

Towards a Stable Organic Electrolyte for the Lithium Oxygen Battery

whose ethereal framework is much more inherentlystable to superoxide-initiated hydrogen abstrction than the simply glyme,dimethoxxyethane (DME). Reactions of chemmically generated superoxide with this electrolyte show that virtually no decomposition products such as lithium formate are generated. When the electrolyte is amployed in a Li-O2 battery, a ten fold decrease in CO2 evolutionm is evident on charge by comparison to DME and greatly inhanced cyclying stability is observed with TiC as a cathode support. A mechanism  is proposed to account for the lowered reactivity, offering new insight into the stability of organic electrolytes in Li-O2 Batteries. This approach for electrolyte design is presented here for the first time, and it can be extended to other organic systems to provide a platform for the design of advanced electroylte systems.

Applied Battery Research for Transportation

The critical technological component in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that enables comparable convenience, affordability, and safety to those found in today’s petroleum-powered vehicles continues to be energy storage. To promote the widespread adoption of electric vehicles and enable a strong U.S.-based battery manufacturing sector, the materials discovery and device innovation taking place in national laboratories and at universities must be translated into commercially viable products and processes. Such applied research activities are inherently high risk; coupling the frontier, cutting edge nature of materials discovery with the performance/cost needs of a market-changing new product. A significant portfolio of R&D projects funded through the VTO that meet these criteria are grouped together in the Applied Battery Research (ABR) for transportation program. The ABR program is and will continue to be comprised of high risk projects investigating issues and advances at the cell level. Success in ABR projects means electric drive vehicle energy storage products that can be realized (manufactured) and that lead to cost reduction; thus, fulfilling the energy storage component of EERE’s EV Everywhere Initiative. Such improvements will be accomplished through novel materials, particularly the active components of the cell, but also through innovative cell design and electrode composition. As well, materials production, electrode processing, and cell manufacture are also important thrusts within ABR.

Optimal Management and Sizing of Energy Storage under Dynamic Pricing for the Efficient Integration of Renewable Energy

We address the optimal energy storage management and sizing problem in the presence of renewable energy and dynamic pricing associated with electricity from the grid. We formulate the problem as a stochastic dynamic program that aims to minimize the long-run average cost of electricity used and investment in storage, if any, while satisfying all the demand. We model storage with ramp constraints, conversion losses, dissipation losses and an investment cost. We prove the existence of an optimal storage management policy under mild assumptions and show that it has a dual threshold structure. Under this policy, we derive structural results, which indicate that the marginal value from storage decreases with its size and that the optimal storage size can be computed efficiently. We prove a rather surprising result, as we characterize the maximum value of storage under constant prices and i.i.d. net-demand processes: if the storage is a profitable investment then the ratio of the amortized cost of storage to the constant price is less than 1 4 . We further perform sensitivity analysis on the size of optimal storage and its gain via a case study. Finally, with a computational study on real data we demonstrate significant savings with energy storage.

Economies of scale for future lithium-ion battery recycling infrastructure

uncertainties associated with a highly variable waste stream. This paper develops and applies an optimization model to analyze the profitability of recycling facilities given current estimates of LIB technologies, commodity market prices of materials expected to be recovered, and material composition for three common battery types (differentiated on the basis of cathode chemistry). Sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability is highly dependent on the expected mix of cathode chemistries in the waste stream and the resultant variability in material mass and value. The potential values of waste streams comprised of different cathode chemistry types show a variability ranging from $860 per ton1 for LiMn2O4 cathode batteries to $8900 per ton for LiCoO2 cathode batteries. In addition, these initial results and a policy case study can also help to promote end-of-life management and relative policymaking for spent LIBs.

Flow battery using non-newtonian fluids

Flow battery. The battery includes high energy density fluid electrodes having a selected non-Newtonian rheology and structure for providing intermittent flow pulses of controlled volume and duration of the fluid electrodes, the structure adapted to promote interfacial slip to improve flow uniformity. The battery disclosed herein provides a potential solution to large-scale electrical energy storage needs.

DNV KEMA Residential Solar Energy Storage Analysis

In this study, the DNV KEMA team has examined the potential of storage applications to meet minimal electricity needs identified for residences, where grid failures prevented their distributed assets from operating during the outage

  • Specifically, research has focused on the potential of solar–storage applications with the goal of:
  • Identifying lowest incremental cost to allow solar PV systems to island from the electric grid and provide a modest level of electricity for critical loads through these types of configurations
  • Identify niche applications close to commercialization for stationary energy storage that could be further supported by NYSERDA’s research, demonstration and deployment programs
Battery Manufacturing for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Policy Issues

The United States is one of several countries encouraging production and sales of fully electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce oil consumption, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA; P.L. 111-5) provided federal financial support to develop a domestic lithium-ion battery supply chain for electric vehicles. Some of these companies have brought on new production capacity, but others have gone bankrupt or idled their plants. While early in his Administration President Obama forecast that 1 million plug-in electric vehicles would be sold by 2015, motorists have been slow to embrace all-electric vehicles. At the beginning of 2013, about 80,000 plug-in electrics were on U.S. roads.