Research Studies

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/ polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li2S8) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li2S2 and Li2S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li2S4. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li2S2/Li2S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg1 and 190 W h L1 for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li2S8 catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg1 and 108 W h L1 can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO3 additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g1 . This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

Advanced Battery Development

Energy Storage R&D FY 2013 annual report

Photovoltalic Surface Crystal

Thin film of Photovoltalic cell that can be incorpated into phone screen to charge phones. Can also be used for outdoor/archetecture applications

Economic Impact Study and New York Roadmap for Energy Storage

NY-BEST releases the Economic Impact Study and New York Roadmap for Energy Storage showing how New York can grow jobs and lead the way in energy storage technology.

The Current Move of Lithium Ion Batteries Towards the Next Phase

Application targets of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are moving from smallsized mobile devices of information technology to large-scale electric vehicles (xEVs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). Environmental issues and abruptly increasing power demands are pushing high performance energy storage devices or systems onto markets. LIBs are one of the most potential candidates as the energy storage devices mainly due to their high energy densities with fairly good rate capabilities and a fairly long cycle life. As battery systems become larger in terms of stored energy as well as physical size, the safety concerns should be more seriously cared. Each application target has its own specifi cation so that electrode materials should be chosen to meet requirements of the corresponding application. This report diagnoses the current market trends of LIBs as a primary topic, followed by giving an overview of anode and cathode material candidates of LIBs for xEVs and ESSs based on their electrochemical properties.

Market Evaluation for Energy Storage in the United States
Produced by KEMA and ommissioned by the Copper Development Association Inc. (CDA), this paper evaluates the near-term market for grid energy storage in the United States (U.S.) and the copper content associated with this market. The CDA is the market development, engineering, and information services arm of the copper industry, chartered to enhance and expand markets for copper and its alloys in North America.  To support the CDA with its objectives for an energy storage market assessment, KEMA focused on four core points of analysis:
1. Defining the current market for energy storage in the U.S.
2. Assessing initiatives that are shaping the U.S. energy storage market
3. Forecasting the near-future U.S. market for energy storage from 2011 to 2016
4. Projecting copper demand associated with the U.S. energy storage market

The potential to utilize widespread low-grade geothermal resources of the Northeastern U.S. for thermal direct use and combined heat and power applications can be realized using technologies embodied in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). In lower grade regions, accurate knowledge of small variations in temperature gradient will be crucial to the economic viability of EGS development. In order to facilitate EGS project placement and design, this study draws a more complete picture of geothermal resources in the Northeastern United States—with a particular focus on New York and Pennsylvania—by incorporating thousands of new temperature-depth data collected as a result of continuing drilling for unconventional natural gas in the region. Using these new data, a series of maps covering the Appalachian Basin of New York and Pennsylvania were produced that show variations in subsurface thermal gradient and surface heat flow. The increased spatial accuracy and resolution compared to earlier geothermal maps of the Northeast U.S. illuminate better spatial variations in the resource quality, and have a much smaller degree of uncertainty in both extent and magnitude. The maps indicate that the temperatures required for direct-use applications are available at economically viable drilling depths over a majority of the region. Smaller ―hot spot‖ areas of higher than average heat flow are found in the Pennsylvania counties of Indiana, McKean, Lawrence, and Warren, as well as Cayuga County in New York. These anomalies represent the most ideal candidates for further exploration and characterization of their EGS potential.

Supply-Adequacy-Based Optimal Construction of Microgrids in Smart Distribution Systems

Recently, the concept of microgrids (clusters of distributed generation, energy storage units and reactive power sources serving a cluster of distributed loads in grid-connected and isolated grid modes) has gained a lot of interest under the smart grid vision. However, there is a strong need to develop systematic procedure for optimal construction of microgrids. This paper presents systematic and optimized approaches for clustering of the distribution system into a set of virtual microgrids with optimized self-adequacy. The probabilistic characteristics of distributed generation (DG) units are also considered by defining two new probabilistic indices representing real and reactive power of the lines. Next, the advantages of installing both distributed energy storage resources (DESRs) and distributed reactive sources (DRSs) are investigated to improve the self-adequacy of the constructed microgrids. The new strategy facilitates robust infrastructure for smart distribution systems operational control functions, such as self-healing, by using virtual microgrids as building blocks in future distribution systems. The problem formulation and solution algorithms are presented in this paper. The well-known PG&E 69-bus distribution system is selected as a test case and through several sensitivity studies, the effect of the total DESRs or DRSs capacities on the design and the robustness of the algorithm are investigated. Index Terms

Global Lithium Availability

There is disagreement on whether the supply of lithium is adequate to suppor t a future global fleet of electric vehicles. We repor t a comprehensive analysis of the global lithium resources and compare it to an assessment of global lithium demand from 2010 to 2100 that assumes rapid and widespread adoption of electric vehicles. Recent estimates of global lithium resources have reached very different conclusions. We compiled data on 103 deposits containing lithium, with an emphasis on the 32 deposits that have a lithium resource of more than 100,000 tonnes each. For each deposit, data were compiled on its location, geologic type, dimensions, and content of lithium as well as current status of production where appropriate. Lithium demand was estimated under the assumption of two different growth scenarios for electric vehicles and other current battery and nonbattery applications. The global lithium resource is estimated to be about 39 Mt (million tonnes), whereas the highest demand scenario does not exceed 20 Mt for the period 2010 to 2100. We conclude that even with a rapid and widespread adoption of electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion batteries, lithium resources are sufficient to suppor t demand until at least the end of this century

16-21 Load Archetypes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of New York City's Largest Users to Help Accelerate the Deployment of Battery Storage

Created through a public-private partnership with Con Edison, NYSERDA, and NYCEDC, GridMarket links distributed energy projects and essential development information with a trusted supplier network.